The recent development by scientists of brain-computer interfaces (BCI), provided an important element for the creation of brain-to-brain communication systems.
Images © Plos One
Brain-to-brain stimulation techniques are now available for the realization of non-invasive computer-brain interfaces (CBI).
Above: View of emitter and receiver subjects with non-invasive devices supporting. The successfully transmitted code in the particular scenario shown is a ‘0’: the target and ball are at the bottom of the screen and the TMS coil is in the orientation not producing phosphenes for this particular participant, with the handle pointing upwards.
Human sensory and motor systems provide the natural means for the exchange of information between individuals, and, hence, the basis for human civilization.
According to Plos One:
These technologies, BCI and CBI, can be combined to realize the vision of non-invasive, computer-mediated brain-to-brain (B2B) communication between subjects (hyperinteraction). Here we demonstrate the conscious transmission of information between human brains through the intact scalp and without intervention of motor or peripheral sensory systems. Pseudo-random binary streams encoding words were transmitted between the minds of emitter and receiver subjects separated by great distances, representing the realization of the first human brain-to-brain interface. In a series of experiments, we established internet-mediated B2B communication by combining a BCI based on voluntary motor imagery-controlled electroencephalographic (EEG) changes with a CBI inducing the conscious perception of phosphenes (light flashes) through neuronavigated, robotized transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), with special care taken to block sensory (tactile, visual or auditory) cues. Our results provide a critical proof-of-principle demonstration for the development of conscious B2B communication technologies. More fully developed, related implementations will open new research venues in cognitive, social and clinical neuroscience and the scientific study of consciousness. We envision that hyperinteraction technologies will eventually have a profound impact on the social structure of our civilization and raise important ethical issues.
source Plos One
Leave A Comment