Scientists used the European Space Agency’s Herschel Space Observatory, an infrared telescope with a mirror 3.5 m in diameter. They studied the distant objects in detail with the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) camera.
The measurements confirm the idea that stars formed most rapidly about 11 billion years ago, or about three billion years after the Big Bang, and that the rate of star formation is much faster than was thought.
These Herschel-SPIRE measurements have revealed the new population of galaxies to be hotter than expected, due to stars forming far much more rapidly than we previously believed.
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